Technology Today

2011 Issue 1

Raytheon's Integrated Energy Solutions Overview

Applying technologies critical to national security

TopFeatureEnergy is becoming increasingly critical to national security. It is a major concern and cost consideration for current and future defense operations. The 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review calls for crafting a strategic approach to energy and for operational energy considerations to be incorporated into force planning, requirements development and acquisition processes.

Known for its technological innovation and total mission solutions, Raytheon is addressing energy applications from an overall system perspective by employing three complementary approaches, illustrated in Figure 1:

1. Development and incorporation of advanced energy sources.

2. Management and security of energy grids and infrastructures.

3. Conservation of existing energy supplies, exemplified by Raytheon's sustainability initiatives.

Raytheon produces a large number of systems and products with diverse power and energy demands. Power demands range from less than 1 watt, for low-power, man-portable systems and unattended sensors, up to many megawatts for large radar installations and critical infrastructure needs. Operational environment and logistical constraints are also considered when evaluating alternative sources such as solar and wind power. For example, operations in a remote desert location may be better supported by incorporating solar energy and energy storage to minimize dependence on diesel generators and their corresponding fuel usage. However, incorporating new technologies should not inadvertently introduce vulnerabilities in the overall system architecture. This is one of the basic tenets of good systems engineering at Raytheon. In addition, it is important to properly assess the financial impact of these alternative energy implementations through a detailed return on investment analysis that examines total operational costs.

In this issue of Technology Today, you will read about how Raytheon partners with developers and institutions on leading-edge, energy-related technology to provide the best system solutions for our customers' unique applications.

Systems Analysis and Architecture

Beginning with a fundamental understanding of the mission objectives and power requirements, a comprehensive solution requires expertise in energy generation, storage and distribution, architecture, modeling and simulation, command and control, information management, sensing, cyberdefense, critical infrastructure protection, software, and power electronics integration. The next article, "Building Tomorrow's Energy Surety With Today's Technologies," discusses Raytheon's systems engineering approach to addressing our customers' energy needs. The article describes how Raytheon, as an energy surety integrator, utilizes our resources in these areas to develop energy solutions that address the three primary stages in a system's energy life cycle: concept, implementation and maintenance. This sets the stage for a series of articles highlighting Raytheon's use of developing source technologies, our energy systems management solutions and our conservation initiatives.


Raytheon, as a technology company and as a systems integrator, recognizes that addressing the energy needs of our customers is key to providing total life-cycle solutions. In this issue, you will read about technologies such as advanced batteries for lightweight mobile applications, atomic batteries for persistent sensors, and fuel cells for man-portable, facility and fixed-base power applications. Renewable solar sources and energy management systems are being developed to support the energy needs of domestic communities, fixed bases and mobile tactical units. Another development is providing long-duration energy for the autonomous operation of underwater vehicles. With growth in domestic power needs and the complexity of interconnected power grids, integrated energy surety solutions have entered the forefront as the means for identifying and mitigating the risks and impacts of failure or compromise within the U.S. energy infrastructure. Raytheon is applying our considerable systems engineering resources to address power generation, distribution and storage strategies, and cybersecurity measures. Finally, as responsible citizens, we have a strong culture of energy awareness in everything we do, as evidenced by an established track record of conservation within our facilities.

Figure 1. Integrated Energy Solution

Source Technologies

There are several existing and emerging electrical power generation technologies that play an important role in meeting the needs of our customers.

The generalized Ragone chart in Figure 2 is used to compare the performance of various energy sources. On the chart, the values of energy density (Wh/kg) are plotted against power density (W/kg). The vertical axis represents how much energy is available, while the horizontal axis represents how quickly that energy can be delivered to a load. The chart shows various energy sources — from low-power betavoltaics to higher power lithium batteries, fuel cells and combustion engines.

Many of Raytheon's products require the use of electrical sources with moderate power and energy density. This need is typically met with conventional chemical batteries. In "Advanced Chemical Battery Technologies: The Lithium Revolution," we start with a general discussion of chemical batteries, and then focus on advancements in lithium ion battery technology, which have evolved to dominate other common battery technologies for many of today's applications. Work is ongoing to further increase lithium battery performance through improvements in three areas: chemistry, electrodes and electrolytes.

Other applications benefit from very long life (high energy density), but require only a small amount of power. These applications are typically persistent unattended sensors for monitoring and tagging. The article titled "Power Sources That Last a Century," about betavoltaics (atomic energy sources), addresses this class of applications, which will enable tiny smart sensors that never need their batteries recharged or replaced.

For those applications requiring a clean and quiet power source — and where there is access to fuel for extended operation — the fuel cell is a viable technology. "Creating Compact, Reliable and Clean Power With Fuel Cell Technology" discusses the various types of fuel cells with the capability to cover a very large power range. We highlight an application where this technology has the potential to replace conventional batteries that power equipment for man-portable operations, significantly reducing the weight and volume of power sources that must be carried by soldiers on missions that range from days to weeks.

Figure 2Development of renewable solar energy sources is being undertaken at our sun-rich facility in Tucson, Ariz. We are participating in this collaborative research effort with Science Foundation Arizona, the University of Arizona, United Innovations and the California Energy Commission. This work is based on the photovoltaic cavity converter. The novel "photon-recycling" technology described in "Solar Power: Applying Raytheon's Defense Technologies" helps to increase the efficiency of current solar cells by capturing more of the incident solar energy. The goal is to develop a cost-competitive solar power solution to replace conventional power sources for many military and commercial applications. A photo of the team's proof of concept demonstration hardware appears on the cover of this issue.

The last article on power sources highlights our involvement with Cyclone Power Technologies, a company that has developed an innovative engine that converts heat from external combustion to electricity. Raytheon is integrating this technology as a replacement for batteries in long-endurance, long-range underwater vehicle applications.

Energy Management

We begin this series of articles with a system that illustrates the principles of energy management on a small scale. Raytheon's ReGenerator is a self-contained hybrid power system that generates, stores and manages clean renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, designed for tactical use in remote locations. In fact, the ReGenerator has been deployed with the U.S. Marines in the Southwest United States, North Africa and Afghanistan. The article shows how the use of alternative energy along with intelligent energy command and control (IEC2) may considerably reduce a combat unit's dependence on fossil fuels. This not only represents a cost savings, but it also reduces risk to warfighters by reducing the logistics footprint while providing reliable energy where and when it's needed. The accompanying article discusses Raytheon's intelligent power and energy management (IPEM) technology and explains how we employ it in development of our energy systems, such as the ReGenerator, to optimize efficiency and availability.

A discussion of energy management must include energy storage. "The Role of Energy Storage in Intelligent Energy Systems" explains why energy storage is an important element of any energy system architecture, outlines general requirements, and identifies several technologies of interest along with their applications.

The next two articles focus on the security risks associated with complex power grids. They discuss the complexities and challenges for managing risks in evolving smart grid concepts. "Cyber Risk Management in Electric Utility Smart Grids" discusses Raytheon's collaboration with the University of Arizona, Tucson Electric Power, and several small-business partners to meet recently mandated regulations and guidelines for smart grid cybersecurity, architecture and infrastructure protection. "Cybersecurity for Microgrids" discusses our process and suite of modeling and evaluation tools used to assess the security of energy networks and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies.

The last article in this series, "Standardizing the Smart Grid," discusses Raytheon's presence in the international energy standards community and our activities related to developing smart grid requirements and guidelines. The two key areas of standardization are interoperability and cybersecurity.

Raytheon is represented on the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel sponsored by the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the related series of task forces established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) to address power systems, information technology and communications technology standards.


In the "Leaders Corner," Raytheon's Integrated Defense Systems President Tom Kennedy provides examples of how our technology is being applied to reducing customers' energy costs and how we are reducing our own energy footprint through our "Energy Citizen" program and "green" certified facilities.

In "Meet a New Raytheon Leader," Raytheon's energy conservation and management measures are addressed by Luis Izquierdo, Raytheon's vice president for corporate Operations in Engineering, Technology and Mission Assurance. In this Q&A, Izquierdo talks about his role and how it relates to energy conservation and management, Raytheon's energy goals, and the key elements of Raytheon's energy program.


We hope this issue provides you with a good perspective of the degree of focus and breadth of development that Raytheon is bringing to bear on the many energy-related challenges. Energy is critical to our national security and Raytheon, as a systems and technology company, is using its resources to provide comprehensive solutions to meet our customers' energy needs.

Lindley Specht

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