Energy surety is an approach to an "ideal" energy system that, when fulfilled, enables the system to function properly while allowing it to resist stresses that could result in unacceptable losses. The attributes of the energy surety model include safety, security, reliability, recoverability and sustainability.
Numerous existing and emerging electrical power generation and energy storage technologies may be employed to address the needs and objectives of U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and other domestic and international customers. Maintaining energy surety throughout a system's life cycle requires the identification, analysis and integration of the right energy technologies, while considering specific applications and environments. Raytheon accomplishes this by leveraging its expertise and resources in system architecture, design and integration; command and control; communications; cybersecurity; critical infrastructure protection; weather prediction; and modeling and simulation (M&S).
Full Life-cycle Approach
The system solution is developed and matured throughout the three primary stages in the energy solutions life cycle — concept, implementation and maintenance — as illustrated in Figure 1.
During the concept stage, understanding the requirements, performing analysis of alternatives (AoA), cost benefit trades, and vulnerability analyses result in cost-effective solutions that meet user needs and are resilient to enemy attack. Early planning addresses the strategic concerns related to the architecture and deployment of a new initiative or mission and considers policy constraints, resource availability, personnel safety, target environment topology and weather characteristics, vulnerability and cost. AoA supports the planning process through rigorous trade-offs of operational approaches, technology configurations, cost-schedule-technology risks, and threats. Finally, architecture definition, modeling, simulation and systems analysis provide the foundation for design and implementation efforts and provide predictions of how — and how well — the system will operate once it is implemented. Some of these early analyses address the approach, effectiveness and costs of maintenance to ensure that the architecture and operational approach can be adequately supported and upgraded. This early total system analysis and architecture definition yields dividends during the implementation and maintenance stages by reducing the costs of operation, maintenance and upgrades.
The implementation stage continues with detailed planning and design trade-offs that focus on installation performance, testability and supportability. Specific system and technology choices are made and a detailed deployment cost and schedule plan is created. All stakeholders are involved, and service-level agreement contracts are created and signed. System engineering, power systems design, supply chain and contracts management are critical during this and the maintenance stage. Proper analysis and selection in this phase reduces operational costs and improves system availability, enhancing energy surety and reducing the required frequency and cost of future upgrades.
In the maintenance stage, the choices made during the concept and implementation stages are evaluated and evolved to support normal and peak operations. Power generation, power transmission, energy storage and load balance technologies are assessed and refreshed as needed. Optimization of human and system resources required to maintain the power system also occurs during this stage. The plan, implement and improve cycle runs continuously, drawing on the architecture, design, model- ing and analysis skill sets.
The attributes of energy surety are optimized through the application of Raytheon's system engineering methods and resources addressing the full life cycle of the energy system.
The development and analysis of a comprehensive energy enterprise architecture is required for complex systems and is necessary before the total system can be understood and optimized. Raytheon employs the industry-standard Unified Profile for DoD Architecture Framework/U.K. Ministry of Defence Architecture Framework. This architecture captures all of the energy surety attributes and characteristics related to availability, performance, testability, interoperability, maintainability and scalability. One of the essential methods is model-based engineering (MBE) and the analysis capabilities it provides.
Model-based systems engineering is the formalized application of modeling to support system requirements, design, analysis, verification and validation activities beginning in the conceptual design phase and continuing throughout development and later life-cycle phases. Raytheon employs proven MBE practices to evaluate functional and non-functional system characteristics and perform engineering trade-offs of the energy solutions, considering the entire life cycle. Modeling and simulation are used to evaluate the scalability and cost-benefit implications of alternative architectures, designs and deployment strategies.
For example, Raytheon's MBE architecture analysis of one of the U.S. Army's training bases demonstrated significant cost and time savings by employing a mixed profile of renewable and legacy energy generation resources, while deploying more efficient energy utilization strategies.
For this analysis, several modeling, simulation and analysis tools were used to assess the viability of a wide range of energy surety capabilities and technologies.
- The National Renewable Energy Laboratories' HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables) and ViPOR (Village Power Optimization Model for Renewables) tools were used to support the planning during the concept stage. The HOMER tool provided a low-fidelity modeling environment to trade cost, performance, functionality and risk factors associated with alternative energy deployment strategies. The ViPOR tool supported power bus and distribution line lay-down trade-offs.
- Power transmission modeling tools such as PowerWorld™ Simulator were useful during the implementation stage to conduct trade studies on various power source and load balance alternatives.
- General-purpose physics modeling and discrete event simulation models using tools such as Simulink® and eXtendTM were useful for end-to-end system and device-specific performance trade-offs.
A useful outgrowth of this modeling and simulation effort was the ability to employ both discrete and continuous modeling techniques in an integrated, end-to-end performance assessment, linked to live energy-generation and storage resources.
Defensive mechanisms that respond to a wide range of security threats and reduce vulnerabilities address an important attribute of energy surety. These mechanisms draw on Raytheon's core competencies in cyber- security, critical infrastructure protection, command and control, situational awareness, environmental data modeling and analytics, and secure communications.
We have expanded our command and control situational awareness functionality to include energy-related resources (generation, storage and loads). These monitoring functions now provide the historical, current and predictive operational state of mission-critical energy subsystems. Secure, reliable wired and wireless communications technologies are being effectively applied to develop secure SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) capabilities that address the high risk of cyberattacks against the energy infrastructure.
Physical security risks associated with the energy infrastructure are cost effectively addressed as part of a comprehensive critical infrastructure protection (CIP)-based suite of sensing, defense and deterrence capabilities demonstrated and matured in Raytheon's existing CIP solutions.
Forecasting and Planning
Raytheon addresses the challenges of energy demand forecasting and planning by employing weather, social and technology modeling techniques to analyze trends and to project probabilities of occurrence of a wide range of factors that influence a system's energy profile. Raytheon's environmental weather modeling capabilities, linked with our partnerships in academia, government and industry, build a strong foundation for providing these capabilities.
Closing the Gaps
As shown in Figure 2, Raytheon's strengths align with many of our customers' energy solution gaps. The application of a total system and full life-cycle approach, along with appropriate expertise, enhances energy surety. The energy system is better managed, improving efficiency and reducing costs. Better defenses are provided to counter physical and cyber threats.
Ron Williamson and Bob Gerard