Raytheon's Integrated Energy Solutions Overview
Applying technologies critical to national security
Energy is becoming increasingly critical to national security. It is a major concern and cost consideration for current and future defense operations. The 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review calls for crafting a strategic approach to energy and for operational energy considerations to be incorporated into force planning, requirements development and acquisition processes.
Building Tomorrow's Energy Surety With Today's Technologies
Energy surety is an approach to an "ideal" energy system that, when fulfilled, enables the system to function properly while allowing it to resist stresses that could result in unacceptable losses. The attributes of the energy surety model include safety, security, reliability, recoverability and sustainability.
Advanced Chemical Battery Technologies:
The Lithium Revolution
Many of us are aware of a number of technologies that have followed some variant of "Moore's Law" for growth in long-term performance, but advances in battery technology have been more modest. The increased presence of power-hungry portable devices (e.g., smart phones, personal digital assistants and their military counterparts) as well as the push to clean hybrid or all-electric vehicles has intensified the focus on — and public and private sector investment in — battery chemistry and development. This article highlights recent developments in lithium battery technologies that may advance the current state of the art and meet the increasing energy needs of our customers.
Power Sources That Last a Century
Raytheon's customers need compact, reliable and long-lived, high energy density power supplies for applications such as sustainable low-power electro-mechanical devices. One such application is unattended embedded stress monitoring devices using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) that are located in inaccessible areas such as aircraft structures, bridges and buildings. These applications all beg for a robust, viable, cost-effective power supply that can satisfy the long- duration needs and sustainable power required for predicting the onset of a structural failure, and then conveying this information to allow for pre-emptive action and avoid catastrophe.
Creating Compact, Reliable and Clean Power With Fuel Cell Technology
The demand for compact, reliable and clean power is an important driver and constraint for large and small systems. Rapid technological advances have been made in fuel cells, which are of interest to Raytheon and our customers as a more effective source of power for key products and as a more sustainable source of power for facilities and large-scale systems.
The Battlefield Game Changer:
Portable and Wearable Soldier Power
Imagine that you have a 100-pound load on your back for the next 72 hours, and you're hiking on rough terrain where there are likely to be many life-threatening dangers in your path. You can't abandon your load, because it holds life-saving necessities. This is a 72-hour mission in Afghanistan.
Solar Power: Applying Raytheon's Defense Technologies
The demand for bringing more renewable energy power-generation capability online is enormous, both in the U.S. and internationally. Replacing the need for foreign oil imports is a growing national defense need; the U.S. Department of Defense has directed base commanders to reduce, and eventually eliminate, their dependence on foreign oil imports and to use renewable energy. At the same time, most utilities across the U.S. are required to meet state-mandated, renewable energy, electric power generation goals. In Arizona, for example, the renewable energy portfolio must be 15 percent of all energy supplied by 2025.
External Combustion Engines for Military Applications
The U.S. Navy has called for increased stamina in unmanned undersea vehicles to enable missions that can last for weeks, not just one or two days; this exceeds the energy capability of traditional battery technologies. Raytheon engineers are addressing the need for an alternative power source through the use of external combustion engines and monopropellant fuels. The team investigated a number of engine types. Particularly promising technologies included a modified Rankine cycle engine developed by Cyclone Power Technologies, Inc.
The ReGenerator: Alternative Energy for Expeditionary Missions
Military operations in unconventional wars conducted in remote locations have numerous logistics challenges. One of the most prevalent among them is fuel supply. For example, in Afghanistan, because of logistics lines that must move fuel over more than 150,000 square miles — through some of the most hazardous regions in the country — the fully burdened cost of fuel (FBCF) has been estimated to be in excess of $40 per gallon at some of the more extreme locations.1 But more important, the true FBCF is the high risk of attacks along resupply routes, which pose a direct threat to warfighter safety.
Intelligent Power and Energy Management
Advanced power systems require intelligent energy command and control (IEC2) software to intelligently and dynamically interface with a diverse set of components. With intelligent management, energy can be used, stored or recycled in ways presently not possible in order to optimize the system for a variety of dynamic mission needs tailorable in real time by the user. IEC2 provides uninterruptable power surety for critical loads and, via existing communication links, provides prognostics as well. This allows preemptive maintenance to achieve maximum system availability. System security, health monitoring, hot swap and paralleling are capabilities enabled by IEC2 that cannot be satisfied by the generator sets and power distribution units currently used by the United States military.
The Role of Energy Storage in Intelligent Energy Systems
An essential element of any power system is the energy storage component. Requirements may include providing power for solar or wind-driven applications during times of low sunlight or wind, peak-demand buffering for electrical grids, pulsed load averaging, peak load shaving for consumers, and uninterruptable power for energy surety.
Cyber Risk Management in Electric Utility Smart Grids
Critical infrastructures are the basic facilities, services and utilities needed for the continued functioning of society. A short list includes electrical power generation and distribution systems (the grid), telecommunications, manufacturing, transportation, water and wastewater, and government. Electric power is vital for all other services and utilities to function; without it, societal order would be severely disrupted. The aging U.S. electric infrastructure and the rise in electric power consumption are factors driving utility industry and government experts to examine the reliability and vulnerabilities of the nation's electrical grid.
Cybersecurity for Microgrids
Power for U.S. national needs is provided through three major grids consisting of 10 smaller grids. These are interconnected through only three gateways. The electrical grid provides consumers with electricity from generation systems through transmission systems (power plants to distribution stations) and distribution systems (distribution stations to consumers).
Standardizing the Smart Grid
In recent years, Raytheon has been providing leadership in energy-related domestic and international standards- development organizations, such as the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, IEEE P2030  — Smart Grid Interoperability Guidelines Standards, and International Committee for Information Technology Standards. Additionally, Raytheon actively participates in the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP) sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
A Message From Mark
Just as minimizing energy use and cost-effectively meeting energy needs are top-of-mind for all of us at Raytheon, so too are these major concerns for Raytheon's defense and national security customers. Collectively we face the growing challenges related to energy and fossil fuel usage. Raytheon, known for technological innovation, is focused on helping to better meet these energy needs and create solutions that support our customers' missions.
Technology Today is published by the Office of Engineering, Technology and Mission Assurance
Editor's note: Correction: Technology Today, 2010 Issue 2, "Next Generation RF Systems,"page 44. The reference to the FCC frequency allocation chart should have been to the United States National Table of Frequency Allocations. Figure 1 was taken from the United States Frequency Allocations: The Radio Spectrum, October 2003, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Department of Commerce, Office of Spectrum Management.