Information assurance is defined by the
processes and technologies required to
manage the risks of storing and sharing
information. Cryptography, a subset of information
assurance, includes the technologies
deployed to ensure the protection of
sensitive information. Cryptographic methods
are an esoteric blend of mathematics
and computer science. Within the U.S.,
these methods and techniques are strictly
controlled by the National Security Agency.
Raytheon produces a variety of communication
systems that include embedded cryptographic
technologies certified by the NSA
for use in classified applications. Many of
these systems use different cryptographic
engines — each NSA-certified — but employ
disparate technologies that have
evolved independently as their program
needs matured over the years. These products
are referred to as Type 1 products.
Type 1 is defined as a cryptographic system
approved by the NSA for handling U.S.
The Type 1 certification process shown in
Figure 1 is very rigorous and includes the
creation of dozens of complex documents
specific to a particular crypto embedment. It
may span two to three years, and it requires
a close working relationship with the NSA.
Several Raytheon products have been certified using this process, with more in
the pipeline. Every step in the process thoroughly
analyzes minute details of a design
to ensure minimal risk of inadvertently
transposing classified information on an unclassified
signal path. Typically, once a system
has been certified, there is
little desire to repeat this process.
If changes are required in a crypto design or
production process, this certification process
must be repeated. Whether tailored or not,
new certification requires serious time,
engineering and funding. Because of this,
Raytheon embraced software-defined cryptography
and extreme commonality across
its various product lines, with a goal to
reuse hardware, software, firmware and certification documentation to minimize
cost, schedule and risk for new certifications.
This adaptability allows for rapid incorporation
of new cryptographic
algorithms, key management services or
undefined capabilities yielding a future-proof
The NSA has defined new requirements for
crypto modernization in NSA/CSS Policy 3-9
to include six basic tenets:
1. Assured security robustness
2. Cryptographic algorithm support
6. End crypto unit management and key
management infrastructure compatibility
This new agency mandate requires that
Raytheon's existing suite of Type 1 products
must be "crypto modern," driven largely by
the retirement of old crypto algorithms in
favor of new, highly robust algorithms.
Raytheon has the opportunity to upgrade its
legacy application-specific products to be
capable of running new, sometimes yet-to-be-defined algorithms. This provides both
an opportunity for growth and a technology
challenge, as many of these products use
different cryptographic engines and techniques
to achieve NSA certification.
To prepare for this challenge, Raytheon
developed a Cryptographic Reference
Architecture to guide programs toward a
common crypto solution by providing the
desired hardware, software, firmware and
certification documentation reuse.
Raytheon's unique position in the embedded
crypto market is the diversity of solutions
employed to achieve Type 1. Rather
than relying on our own organic crypto engine
solution, we tailor the selection of the
engine to our unique requirements. In doing
so, our embedment skills span technologies
beyond a single device family and include
devices from a variety of suppliers and competitors.
We have exploited this knowledge
to create the reference architecture and the
common designs emerging from it.
Raytheon has successfully deployed the
reference architecture on one high-profile
system and used it to win the highly
competitive F-22 Raptor KOV-50
Cryptographic Processor contract. The F-22
capture resulted in an Excellence in Business
Development award, while the team that
developed the reference architecture
received a Raytheon Excellence in
Engineering and Technology award.
Imagine the benefits of a common set of
programmable, crypto modern solutions
that can be reused across airborne,
ground/vehicular, and man-portable Type 1
product lines: improved time to market,
guaranteed interoperability, reduced unit costs, and Mission Assurance. All are achievable
through this unusual level of commonality,
saving millions of dollars and man
years of effort for each Type 1 embedment.
Raytheon is emerging as a premier provider
of embedded Type 1 cryptographic solutions.
The diversity of our embedded cryptographic
solutions; the multiple product domains we
satisfy; the unique skill sets commensurate
with Type 1 certification; our NSA-certified
embedment specialists: All of these combine
to provide growth opportunities in the new